The ancient Chinese are said to have three doctrines: Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, with Christianity and Islam arriving only in the 7th century A.D. Laozi, according to tradition, was the 6th century B.C. Chinese philosopher who wrote the Tao Te Ching of Taoism. Confucius (551-479) taught morality. His philosophy became important during the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D.220). Herbert A Giles (1845-1935), a British Sinologist who modified the Roman version of Chinese characters, says although it is often counted as a religion of China, Confucianism is not a religion, but a system of social and political morality. The Indian emperor Ashoka sent Buddhist missionaries to China in the third century B.C.
Although the religions of the Caribbean have been a subject of popular media, there have been few ethnographic publications. This text is a much-needed and long overdue addition to Caribbean studies and the exploration of ideas, beliefs, and religious practices of Caribbean folk in diaspora and at home. Drawing upon ethnographic and historical research in a variety of contexts and settings, the contributors to this volume explore the relationship between religious and social life. Whether practiced at home or abroad, the contributors contend that the religions of Caribbean folk are dynamic and creative endeavors that have mediated the ongoing and open-ended relation between local and global, historical and contemporary change.
Italy's traditional subcultures - Communist, Socialist, Liberal, Republican, Right-wing - have largely dissolved and yet Catholics have retained their vitality and solidity. How can the vast majority of Italians continue to maintain some connection with Catholicism? How much is the Italian situation influenced by the closeness of the Vatican? Examining the religious condition of contemporary Italy, Religion Italian Style argues that the relationship between religion and society in Italy has unique characteristics when compared with what is happening in other European Catholic Countries. Exploring key topics and religious trends which question how the population feel - from the laity and the role of religions in the public sphere, to moral debates, forms of religious pluralism, and new spiritualities - this book questions how these affect religious life, and how intricately religion is interwoven with the nation's fabric and the dynamics of the whole society.
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